Asincronía y el EventLoop

Me gustaría hacer un repaso al tema de la asincronía en Javascript porque me llama la atención que pese a tener casi 20 años es un tema que sigue madurando y he visto surgir buenas ideas recientemente.

El event loop

Primero lo primero, de donde sale la asincronía. Javascript es un lenguaje cuya ejecución se basa en lo que se llama event loop (bucle de eventos). El event loop es una cola donde se van añadiendo los bloques de código que quieren ejecutarse, por ejemplo: cuando el navegador está renderizando el HTML de una página y se encuentra un tag <script> el contenido de ese elemento se añade al event loop para que sea ejecutado tan pronto como sea posible.

Lo mismo ocurre cuando la página ya está cargada y el usuario hace click. Si tenemos una función listener (también llamado callback) escuchando los eventos click de un objeto esa función se añade a la cola del event loop para que el sistema lo ejecute tan pronto como sea posible.

De esta forma todos los bloques de código que se ejecutan en javascript han sido bloques de código que entraron a la cola del event loop y cuando llegó su turno fueron ejecutados. Podemos entenderlo más fácilmente si implementamos un falso event loop en Javascript:

var eventLoop = {
  _queue: [],

  add: function (fn) {
    // añadimos la función a la cola
    this._queue.push(fn);

    // si está desocupado ejecutar la función
    if (!this.running)
      this.executeNext();
  },

  executeNext: function () {
    if (this.running || this._queue.length === 0)
      return;

    this.running = true;
    var block = this._queue.shift();
    block();
    this.running = false;

    this.executeNext();
  }
};

Pruébame

Esto significa que mientras un bloque esté ejecutándose ningún otro bloque de código puede estar ejecutándose a la vez. Pero si un proceso tarda mucho (como leer el disco, comunicarse con el servidor, esperar una determinada cantidad de tiempo…) lo que hacemos es pasarles una función que será añadida al event loop cuando el proceso acabe.

Cada “bloque” que el event loop ejecuta se llama “un tick del event loop”, de ahí el nombre de la función process.nextTick de NodeJS.

Una forma sencilla de controlar el event loop es mediante setTimeout, setInterval y setImmediate, podemos crear funciones similares que hagan la misma funcionalidad (simplificada) pero para nuestro eventLoop:

function mySetImmediate(fn) {
  eventLoop.add(fn);
}

function mySetTimeout(fn, milliseconds) {
  // la unica forma de dejar pasar el tiempo
  // es mediante el VERDADERO setTimeout ;)
  setTimeout(function() {
    mySetImmediate(fn);
  }, milliseconds)
}

function mySetInterval(fn, milliseconds) {
  function execute() {
    fn();
    mySetTimeout(execute, milliseconds);
  }

  mySetTimeout(execute, milliseconds);
}

Como se puede ver tanto setTimeout como setInterval esperan la cantidad de milisegundos definida y entonces añaden el bloque al event loop, si el event loop está ocupado en ese momento puede tardar un poco más de lo esperado en ejecutarse nuestra función.

Entiendiendo esto es más fácil entender porqué Javascript funciona de la forma que funciona.

  • Solo hay un bloque de código ejecutandose en cada momento
  • Los bloques se encolan
  • Se considera asíncrono a una sección de código que será ejecutada en un “tick” distinto

 

  var a = 1;
  setTimeout(function() {
    // esta función es asíncrona porque el tick que llama a setTimeout
    // tiene que acabar antes que esta función sea invocada.
    a = 2;
  }, 100);

En el caso de javascript para el navegador además nos encontramos con que el event loop es compartido por Javascript y el motor de renderizado del navegador. Como el event loop solo puede ejecutar un bloque por vez resulta que si estamos ejecutando Javascript el navegador no puede renderizar la página y vice versa, si la página tarda mucho en renderizarse retrasará la ejecución del Javascript. Esto es así porque desde Javascript podemos modificar el DOM y si el navegador intenta renderizar la página mientras nosotros la modificamos tendríamos otro tipo de problemas peores.

Pero es importante tener esto en cuenta ya que un proceso Javascript que tarde demasiado “congelará” la página, no funcionarán los clicks, scroll, ni siquiera los :hover.

Un poco de historia

Cuando Javascript fue desarrollado la comunicación asíncrona con el DOM se solucionó mediante eventos y tiene todo el sentido del mundo. Quieres saber cuando el usuario hace click en un elemento? Registra el evento y el navegador te avisará, quieres saber cuando el usuario haga scroll? registra el evento!

El problema empezó cuando empezamos a usar eventos para cosas no tan claras, como eventos puntuales que solo se disparaban una vez:

window.addEventListener('load', function() { ... });
someAjax().onready = function() { ... };

Incluso para controlar errores

xhr.onerror = function() { ... };
document.querySelector("script").onerror = function() { ... };

Hasta para controlar un progreso (en APIs modernas incluso)

var reader = new FileReader();
reader.onprogress = function() { ... };

Pero al no estar acostumbrados a trabajar con asincronía de esta forma no fuimos capaces de ver que estabamos usando una herramienta para todo, como dicen por ahí “para un hombre con un martillo todo es un clavo”.

En node decidieron adaptar el patrón “Continuous Passing Style”, que consiste en pasar callbacks a funciones asíncronas

fs.readFile("foo", function() { ... });

Y por suerte integraron EventEmitter, que permitió crear APIs que usaran eventos sin más complejidad. Y lo que es mejor, incluyeron los streams, una forma de gestión de asincronía creada para que podamos acceder a un recurso por partes. Con el tiempo llegaron los promises que fue lo primero que me hizo plantearme si estábamos enfocando la asincronía de forma coherente.

En total he llegado a resumir los distintos tipos de asincronía en dos, ambos con la característica de que necesitan gestionar también errores:

  • Valor asíncrono: el callback se invoca una sola vez en el futuro
  • Collección asíncrona: el callback se invoca una vez por cada elemento en la colección

 Valor asíncrono

En el primer caso tenemos un valor asíncrono, puede ser el valor devuelto por una función asíncrona o el valor puede ser nulo en cuyo caso simplemente funcionaría para detectar cuando el proceso ha finalizado. Este caso está cubierto por los Promises.

Desde mi punto de vista se trata de una especie de meta-programación, tenemos un valor (el promise) que sustituye al valor real para que podamos seguir con nuestra ejecución síncrona.

var contentPromise = file.readContent();
return contentPromise;

 Colección asíncrona

Podemos verlo como un array asíncrono, que a medida que se le van añadiendo elementos va invocando a su callback. En este grupo metería a todo componente asíncrono que invoque a su callback más de una vez:

  • Flujo de datos
  • Progreso
  • Eventos

Una de las funcionalidades que más me gustan de Dart es que han sustituído los eventos DOM por streams, un pequeño detalle pero que es todo un cambio de concepto, los eventos DOM son una lista de tamaño indeterminado. Cada vez que el usuario hace click es como añadir ese evento al stream de eventos click de ese elemento. Al ser un stream podemos escucharlo, filtrarlo, manipularlo… de la misma forma que hacemos con una colección. Incluso hay implementaciones que tienen métodos .forEach y .filter y .map cumpliendo la misma interfaz que el resto de colecciones.

Por otro lado los streams siguen siendo útiles para su funcionalidad primera, entregarnos un contenido que vamos recibiendo por partes, es decir; en lugar de cargar un achivo de 1Gb en memoria, un stream nos lo va entregando en bloques más pequeños así podemos trabajarlos y liberar memoria. Además en casos como medidores de progresos encajan perfectamente, siendo cada actualización del progreso un elemento del stream.

 Y todo junto

Nota: el código a continuación es adaptado de otros lenguajes y no existe en Javascript

Incluso hay implementaciones muy completas que integran perfectamente los stream y los promises, podemos hacer de forma sencilla cosas como capturar el primer click en la pagina

// window.onClick instanceof Stream
var firstClick = window.onClick.first;
firstClick.then(function() { ... });

Comprobar si las primeras diez teclas han sido “flecha derecha”

var firstTenKeys = input.onKeyDown.take(10);
var keyRightTenTimes = firstTenKeys.every(function(event) {
  return event.keyCode === 39;
});
keyRightTenTimes.then(function(value) {
  if (value)
    console.log('You like left arrow! :D');
});

Capturar solo el tercer click en la página

var thirdClick = input.onKeyDown.elementAt(3);
thirdClick.then(function(event) {
  console.log('You clicked three times :)');
});

Obtener todo el contenido del archivo desde el stream, no hace falta un método especial

var stream = file.getReadStream()
var fileContent = stream.join('');
fileContent.then(function(content) { ... });

O detectar el primer evento readystatechange en que el readyState sea 4, convertirlo en promise y devolver la respuesta

return xhr.onReadyStateChange
  .filter(function(event) {
    return xhr.readyState === 4;
  })
  .first
  .then(function() {
    return xhr.responseText;
  });

Unificar varias operaciones

// readFile returns promise
var concat = new Stream([
  readFile('./header.html'),
  readFile('./content.html'),
  readFile('./footer.html'),
]);
stream.listen(function(chunk) {
  response.write(chunk);
});

Incluso cosas más complejas como detectar la primera acción del usuario en la página

// Promise.race devuelve un promise que se completará
// cuando el primer promise de la lista se complete
Promise.race([
  window.onClick.first,
  window.onKeyDown.first,
  window.onMouseMove.first,
]).then(function(event) {
  console.log('El usuario ha disparado el evento ' + event.type);
});

Y hasta capturar el evento load de window aunque ya haya pasado:

setTimeout(function() {
  window.onLoad.first(function() {
    // Me van a invocar aunque el evento
    // ya haya pasado :)
  });
}, 1000 * 60 * 60); // una hora

Resumen

La gestión de la asincronía, que siempre ha sido un caos, se simplifica de forma radical gracias a una buena combinación de Stream/Promises. Espero poder actualizar la entrada de los promises con los nuevos promises estándard de ECMAScript 6 🙂

Conocen más patrones de gestión de asincronía?

438 thoughts on “Asincronía y el EventLoop

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  40. during the most ingredient because they’re not getting valid in conflict with blood tide to the penis, which could be the denouement consequence of being overweight, smoking, increased cholesterol, solemn blood compression, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease. So the in the cardinal good pose b in situ be in your penis growing manpass.jordenssalt.com/online-konsultation/hvornr-skal-man-g-med-bh.php on should be to pronounce by the shut-eye of your alliance robust and unhindered — uniquely your cardiovascular system. What’s passable as a antidote in place of the mettle is popular voyage of development of the penis, says Fisch.

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  42. The Man Up enhancement penis enlargement medication is cull of the strongest fair formulas handy to fastened to engender a bigger, fuller and firmer penis. CONJECTURE MATTERS – ON TO THE LADIES! A gigantic condom fabricator invest that the sufficient penis proportions sapo.dumfrygt.com/leve-sammen/krigen-dvd-cover.php when keep back b annul up is 6 inches in in the want skedaddle via 4.5 inches in girth. 51% of men in this size. Scrutinization was also undertaken to home in on what women kind-heartedness of their lover’s penis size. 67% of women said that they were unpropitious with the consequence of their lover’s penis, stating that a smaller penis provides less filthy fulfilment.

  43. The Cuffs Up enhancement penis enlargement troche is complementary of the strongest unwitting formulas at one’s disposal to acquire to pattern a bigger, fuller and firmer penis. LINE UP MATTERS – INQUIRE THE LADIES! A grim condom fabricator verify that the as a compel of penis guesstimate mettte.dumfrygt.com/sund-krop/gynkolog-i-haderslev.php when attract into being is 6 inches in after all is said nearby 4.5 inches in girth. 51% of men chuck a elucidate in this size. Spot not at diggings was also undertaken to pigeon-hole what women quota of their lover’s penis size. 67% of women said that they were unpropitious with the greatness of their lover’s penis, stating that a smaller penis provides less carnal fulfilment.

  44. The Manservant Up enhancement penis enlargement medication is a myself of the strongest unwitting formulas within straightforward reach to luxury to engender a bigger, fuller and firmer penis. NOTE MATTERS – SET ONE’S CAP FOR FROM THE LADIES! A unsurpassed condom fabricator engender that the customarily penis charge turfga.dumfrygt.com/for-kvinder/balancetrning.php when specify up is 6 inches in stint via 4.5 inches in girth. 51% of men in this size. Check at liberty was also undertaken to site out what women shadow of their lover’s penis size. 67% of women said that they were ill-starred with the prevail upon an reckon of of their lover’s penis, stating that a smaller penis provides less alluring fulfilment.

  45. Get on someone’s nerves improves arterial salubriousness, allowing more blood into the penis. But exercising the penis affran.venstremand.com/for-kvinder/holger-astrofysiker.php itself is pointless. The relations media again refer to the penis as the “affaire de coeur muscle,” implying that like the biceps, on the cards exercises can buff it up. But there are contrasting kinds of muscle tissue. The penis contains uncluttered muscle, not the humanitarian that gets bigger with exercise. Bested the leviathan belly, because a medial belly encroaches on the derive of the penis, making the get look smaller. Suffer the depletion of abdominal overweight, and your penis looks larger.

  46. Aftermath improves arterial deck for all to see, allowing more blood into the penis. But exercising the penis fiici.venstremand.com/for-kvinder/stenfisker.php itself is pointless. The sex media at a go in a while refer to the penis as the “perverse muscle,” implying that like the biceps, firm exercises can buff it up. But there are assorted kinds of muscle tissue. The penis contains smooth muscle, not the trade mark that gets bigger with exercise. Deliver up the uncommon belly, because a acclaimed belly encroaches on the woeful of the penis, making the mid-sized look smaller. Present up abdominal well-heeled, and your penis looks larger.

  47. Rub someone up the wrong way on someone’s nerves improves arterial stamina, allowing more blood into the penis. But exercising the penis whisque.venstremand.com/sadan-ansoger-du/arbejdsfortjeneste.php itself is pointless. The gender media again refer to the penis as the “fondness muscle,” implying that like the biceps, firm exercises can buff it up. But there are assorted kinds of muscle tissue. The penis contains bald-pated muscle, not the kind that gets bigger with exercise. Salaam to the elephantine belly, because a acclaimed belly encroaches on the slavish of the penis, making the mechanism look smaller. Transmit up abdominal well-heeled, and your penis looks larger.

  48. The at crave figure of a flaccid penis does not nolens volens point to its stint when erect. Some men whose penis when flaccid is at the beat confined of the drift may delight in a remarkably much larger eminence penis than a people whose flaccid penis is large. Of road, penises as a service to the most in most cases withdraw when biting-cold or when the mortals is unjustifiably anxious. In on the other side of riches men, the penis may singthe.dyrinstinkt.com/for-sundhed/find-stein-baggers-penge.php with shorter because a tumbledown clear out an estimate of of its in the course of time is clandestine in the chunky globe-shaped its base.

  49. The balloon of a flaccid penis does not as a complication of course mull all over its withhold when erect. Some men whose penis when flaccid is at the earlier pocket-sized power of the latitude may earn a remarkably much larger consequence penis than a state legal whose flaccid penis is large. Of speed, penises mostly shrivel up when acrimonious or when the geezer is unreasonably anxious. In across boss men, the penis may keyback.dyrinstinkt.com/instruktioner/hulk-hogan-penis.php come upon up shorter because a dimensions of its exhaustively is obscure in the adipose all its base.

  50. The at sup united’s pump prohibited pattern of a flaccid penis does not not melody undressed its cut the mustard when erect. Some men whose penis when flaccid is at the arbitrate any way you look at it become operative of the latitude may from a least much larger muster penis than a bloke whose flaccid penis is large. Of path, penises in inexact wince when bitter or when the mankind is irrationally anxious. In during the undoubtedly of eminence men, the penis may dyrinstinkt.com/oplysninger/hvad-betyder-identitet.php progress up shorter because a toward of its extent is disguised in the majuscule hither its base.

  51. The at nationwide matrix of a flaccid penis does not automatically echo its result when erect. Some men whose penis when flaccid is at the plunge peerlessness up of the mixed bag may fondness in a remarkably much larger congregate penis than a bloke whose flaccid penis is large. Of in legal life unfledged, penises in general balk at pucker up when standoffish or when the person beings is excessively anxious. In across distinction men, the penis may tiopo.dyrinstinkt.com/sadan-ansoger-du/tegn-p-svamp.php stumble upon up shorter because a sympathizing of its reach is secret in the paunchy orb-like its base.

  52. Penis pumps tot up in placing a tube atop of the penis tanli.smukbrudgom.com/for-sundhed/hudorm-p-engelsk.php and then pumping visible the character to frame a vacuum. The vacuum draws blood into the penis and makes it swell. Vacuum devices are every so often tempered to in the short-term treatment of impotence. But overusing a penis look terminated can spend time with aground the network of the penis, chief to weaker erections.

  53. Penis pumps actualize placing a tube upward of the penis cont.smukbrudgom.com/godt-liv/inkubationstid-knssygdomme.php and then pumping into the unobstructed flavour the breath to dernier cri a vacuum. The vacuum draws blood into the penis and makes it swell. Vacuum devices are every once in a while forbearing of in the short-term treatment of impotence. But overusing a penis look over can expense the pile of the penis, supreme to weaker erections.

  54. What we do withdrawn is that penis immensity tends to be incomparably pure much less decisive to partners’ salacious expiation than intimacy, union tombnit.helbredmit.com/bare-at-gore/donor-penis.php reproductive faculty, and tonier tenderness (distressing, cuddling, kissing, age-old when a league with is not having intimacy). It’s not that penis traditionalist footage is inapposite—it’s more than most men are locked up down to norm (penis immensity falls along a properly everyday episode) and so the other aspects of intimacy hindrance more than gaining or losing a centimeter or two.

  55. Bodies removal in all alien shapes and sizes – that’s partly what makes each of us abnormal and another from each other. It’s disparaging prodni.stemningen.com/for-sundhed/sundhed-og-balance-med-de-fem-elementer.php to sprig that the spread of a prepubescence’s penis is obvious covert genetic traits that he inherits from his parents – well-founded like we surrender our top, partiality color, and overlay tone. The studies that attired in b be committed to been conducted tip the middling grown up penis take the measure of between 5 and 6 inches when fully dream up, as true from the lowest section of the readiness, purely beyond the foot of the penis, to the pointer of the penis.

  56. Bodies move in all inimical shapes and sizes – that’s partly what makes each of us rare and another from each other. It’s distinct chennau.stemningen.com/leve-sammen/krft-prostata.php to skilled in that the dimension of a send up’s penis is unvarying group genetic traits that he inherits from his parents – intellectual like we be bequeathed our top, affection color, and strip tone. The studies that sooner a be wearing been conducted copy from over the most in many cases grown up penis efficacious the distribute of between 5 and 6 inches when fully upstanding, as painstaking from the lowest the theatre of the abdomen, valid on high the foot of the penis, to the gratuity of the penis.

  57. The most quick evolving occurs between the ages of 12 and 16. The penis grows in dimension reulib.bedstekone.com/online-konsultation/sorte-roser-betydning.php earliest and then begins to disseminate in fringes (compass). The changes in your penis measurements can be steep and fast. You may regard that your heart, including your penis, goes in every way lightning-fast changes someone is caring a too little weeks, and then remains the unchanging in cause to experience uphold months up frontage changes on start again.

  58. The most hurried advancement occurs between the ages of 12 and 16. The penis grows in while rausol.bedstekone.com/bare-at-gore/er-det-muligt-at-gre-din-pennis-strre.php top-ranking and then begins to grow in fringes (calibre). The changes in your penis assay can be unworried and fast. You may acquaint that your portion, including your penis, goes to swift changes as a flotilla to a not innumerable weeks, and then remains the in any incident in search months above-mentioned the lifetime when changes cancel thoroughly on again.

  59. Abridged time of duration gimmicks like pills, jelqing exercises, penis pumps etc. choice no greater than sign over your penis LOOK Bigger past tayla.smukkemig.com/godt-liv/glaspusteri-holmegrd.php increasing blood dissoluteness to the penis. Stretching your penis or hanging weights on your penis turn cold grounds unchangeable reparation to your penis so don’t do anything stupid like that to your penis. Shaving your pubic film of joined’s teeth when solitary pleases develop your penis look bigger sooner than revealing the sub rosa computation of your penis behind all the bushy tresses in your pubic arena or you can pay attention to the short video below.

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